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tomtopo
May 30th, 2008, 09:56 AM
I know most of us know the importance of resistance exercises but there are some of us who still think it's something they can rationalize as unimportant.

The following article may help convert some of the non-believers or old dogs (who need to learn new tricks) into believers.

Exercise, osteopenia and men Published: Wednesday, 17-Oct-2007

Men's Health News

According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, osteoporosis affects more than 2 million men in the United States and nearly 12 million more have osteopenia - clinically significant low bone density that is less severe than osteoporosis.
Now, a new study from the University of Missouri-Columbia has found that men engaging predominantly in low-impact forms of exercise have an increased incidence of osteopenia-a condition resulting in two times the risk of bone fracture.

"Unfortunately, some individuals who believe they are doing everything right in terms of their health might be surprised and upset by our finding," said Pamela Hinton, an associate professor of nutritional sciences in MU's College of Human Environmental Sciences, who co-authored the study. "We believe, however, that these results will ultimately serve as education and motivation for these people."

Hinton said the effects of osteopenia can be mitigated by integration of weight-bearing activities into the lifestyle of active individuals. Studies in pre- and post-menopausal women suggest that bone mineral density will increase 2 percent to 3 percent after six months of resistance training three times per week. Small changes in bone density translate into much larger changes in bone strength-a 1 percent increase in bone density reduces the risk of fracture by up to 5 percent.

"Regular, non-weight-bearing activities, such as swimming and cycling are effective measures for preventing the leading risk factors for death and disability in our society," Hinton said. "But the results of this study suggest that regular weight-bearing activities, such as running, jogging, or rope jumping, are important for the maintenance of healthy bones."

The researchers measured bone mineral density in 43 competitive male cyclists and runners ages 20 to 59. Findings of the study included:

The cyclists had significantly lower bone mineral density of the whole body, especially of the lumbar spine, compared to runners.
63 percent of the cyclists had osteopenia of the spine or hip compared with 19 percent of the runners.
Cyclists were seven-times more likely to have osteopenia of the spine than the runners.
Background facts:

The risk of fracture is increased approximately two-fold in osteopenic individuals and five-fold in people with osteopenia.
Low bone density in males often remains undiagnosed and inadequately treated and, after suffering a fracture, men are less likely to receive follow-up care than women.
Risk factors for osteoporosis in men are similar to those identified in women: family history, age, low body weight, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, inadequate calcium or vitamin D intake, low reproductive hormone levels, physical inactivity, and disease or medication affecting bone metabolism.
http://www.missouri.edu/


I believe a series of 14 exercises, done at least three times a week will help your swimming and improve / maintain strength. It takes almost an hour to do all of them but if you perform them 6 times a week you can divide them up and reduce the time you spend in the weight room per day.

Abs / Back
Bicep/Triceps
Military/Pull-downs -Lats
Quads/Hams
Chest/Upper back - Rows
Rotator / Core - Stretch Cords
Calves - Soleus / Dorsi-Pantar Flextion

The following website will show you many different ways on how to do them

http://www.exrx.net/Lists/Directory.html

You will get out what you put in. When exercises are done correctly, you will develop a muscle structure that helps prevent injury. There’s no easy road to keeping and improving strength but it’s vital to maintain the quality of life all of us deserve.
Good luck, Coach T.

LindsayNB
May 30th, 2008, 10:21 AM
Tom, the study you cited dealt with the importance of impact not resistance, no?

pwolf66
May 30th, 2008, 10:56 AM
The study seems to indicate that low-impact exercise is not enough to stave off the effects of Osteoperosis. In order you truely have the best chance to minimize the effects, a resistance training regimine must be included.

LindsayNB
May 30th, 2008, 11:04 AM
As summarized the report recommended activities like running, jogging and rope jumping not weight lifting...

I'm not saying the gym isn't effective, just that that is not what the cited study said.

Chris Stevenson
May 30th, 2008, 11:08 AM
The study seems to indicate that low-impact exercise is not enough to stave off the effects of Osteoperosis. In order you truely have the best chance to minimize the effects, a resistance training regimine must be included.

Since cycling and swimming are my main forms of aerobic exercise, I was concerned about this and asked my doctor (Jim Miller).

He said that the exercise must be weight-bearing to be effective in this context. So, for example, seated bicep curls might not help increase bone density even though it is resistance training.

Would it be helped by increased calcium intake? Jim seemed to think so, though he cautioned not to mix calcium with vitamin C (which interferes with calcium absorption).

tomtopo
May 30th, 2008, 12:13 PM
I'm emailing to see if weight training / resistance training and impact activities are to be implied as to be part of that category. I would think so.

hofffam
May 30th, 2008, 01:26 PM
I believe the weight bearing nature of running and similar activities is critical. It is not muscle load per se. Running causes impact on every stride. The bone structure is "pounded" over and over. I think is why bone density improves. The bones are literally being pounded into a more dense structure. Swimming and cycling don't have those characteristics. We push the wall on every start and turn but in a 3000 yd short course workout that is only 120 starts/turns. Plus we are pushing less weight since water relieves much of the mass.

BTW - that very same quality of running is somewhat offset by the wear and tear on cartilage and other moving body parts.

It seems to me that the bone density of gymnasts would be spectacular - although very few adults are active gymnasts.

pwolf66
May 30th, 2008, 01:39 PM
As summarized the report recommended activities like running, jogging and rope jumping not weight lifting...

I'm not saying the gym isn't effective, just that that is not what the cited study said.

You're right, Lindsay, I've got weight training on the brain right now.

Redbird Alum
May 30th, 2008, 01:56 PM
...I think is why bone density improves. The bones are literally being pounded into a more dense structure. ...

If that is true, how would one go about ensuring no loss of density in the bones not directly "impacted" by running or jogging? I can see where most bones from the feet and legs up through the hips and perhaps even the base of the skull would be "impacted" in running and jogging.

However, would one need to take up boxing, medicine ball throwning, or even golf to get impact in the upper extremities?

art_z
May 30th, 2008, 02:52 PM
We push the wall on every start and turn but in a 3000 yd short course workout that is only 120 starts/turns. Plus we are pushing less weight since water relieves much of the mass.

What about the added resistance of pushing through the water?

tomtopo
May 30th, 2008, 02:55 PM
From the horses mouth.

Yes, or at least prevent age-related loss.

Pamela S. Hinton, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Nutritional Sciences

106 McKee Gym

Columbia, MO 65211

phone: (573) 882-4137

FAX: (573) 884-4885

hofffam
May 30th, 2008, 03:52 PM
What about the added resistance of pushing through the water?

First of all - I am not a physician nor trained specifically in these topics. So whatever I write here is based on reading I have done.

I think the resistance of pushing through the water is minimal - even though we swimmers may sometimes think we're swimming in jello. There is almost no impact at all in swimming like there is in running. We do almost nothing in the water that could truly be considered weight bearing.

For Redbird - I think bone density is lost over time all over the body. One reason elderly break bones is the loss of bone density. I suppose you're correct - duplicating for the upper body what running does for the lower body might require something like boxing. But I also think loss of bone density is most significant with legs because they bear the weight of the body in normal life. So perhaps it simply isn't as important to worry about bone density in the arms.

LindsayNB
May 30th, 2008, 04:12 PM
Like Dan I'm not a doctor so can only comment based on my recollection of things I've read. I'm pretty sure the process of maintaining density is considerably more complicated than impacts packing the bones to a greater density. Like most things in the body the maintenance of bones is a complicated homeostatic system with constant adding to and taking away from the bones and with various hormones and such involved in regulating the process to maintain balance. It is possible that those hormones act at least in part globally so that bone density is increased throughout the body even where the stress is local. Depending on the exact mechanisms it could very well be the case that five minutes of rope skipping every day is more effective than hours of low impact resistance training but who knows without a study to cite that says so.

Again, my only real point was that the study cited should relate to the recommendation made! Not to pick on you coach but your latest reply is too terse to know what conclusions to draw! :2cents:

tomtopo
May 30th, 2008, 04:44 PM
Terse??? -Yikes, not terse!!! I thought it was rather simple to infer or induce from the study that impact and weight bearing exercises included weight training or resistance training. For example, jumping rope (impact activity) with a weighted vest is in essence, weight training or resistance training. I hope we’re all on the same page – skeletal health can be improved. The Foundation For Osteoperosis Research Education (FORE) is a wonderful source of information on the topic if you're interested to learn more.

The horse is dying but I'll try to give it the coup de grace with this; Most, if not all studies or research, are drawn from past information. My inference should not have detracted from the thread but alas it has.

Two fish swim into a concrete wall. The one turns to the other and
says "Dam!"

Coach T.

Allen Stark
May 30th, 2008, 10:54 PM
I am a physician(OK I'm a psychiatrist,but I went to medical school).I have read many places that swimming should not be sufficient for prevention of osteoporosis,but the only actual study I know of done on Masters Swimmers(in 1986 at the LCM Nats) showed in fact bone density in Masters Swimmers who swam only,had good bone density.

tomtopo
May 31st, 2008, 08:27 AM
Everything I've read supports the need for men and women to use resisitance / weight training to help them improve or maintain skelatal health. Menopausal women and men who have Osteopenia are more prone to acquire Osteoperosis. There have been many studies that also show that weight bearning exercises / weight training can improve muscular grown at any age. So the real message is, get you and your loved ones motivated to add weight training to their cardiovascular workouts ( they go hand in hand ).

So, swimming is great but when you add a regime of weight training onto a wonderful cardiovascular exercise, the quality of your life now and in the future only gets brighter. Good luck, Coach T.

Two Eskimos sitting in a kayak were chilly, so they lit a fire in the craft. Unsurprisingly it sank, proving once again that you can't have your kayak and heat it too.

Ripple
May 31st, 2008, 09:34 AM
This study doesn't mention walking - some of us can't run or skip rope, for whatever reason. I have an elderly neighbor who walks for hours a day, because her doctor told her she was verging on osteoporosis - it must be working for her as she's been doing it for years. Perhaps a very small and lightweight person could increase the effect by wearing a weighted pack. If you wanted to bring the arms and shoulders into it, walking with something heavy in your hands, like grocery bags, might work.
I wonder how stretch cord training stacks up to weight training for this purpose?
I'm pretty sure that any form of weight training, seated or otherwise, would work. Seems to me it's muscles tugging on their attachments to the bone that does the thickening and strengthening. When archeologists are describing skeletal remains they always mention whether the ancient person in question was a manual laborer or not, based on how thick and rough the attachment points were.

tomtopo
May 31st, 2008, 10:52 AM
Your point is well taken. If you can get your walking friend to add resistance (by even a little bit) with a weight vest / ankle weights / wrist weights, etc., I think you'd be helping her get more "bang for the buck".

As far as stretch-cords or surgical tubing is concerned; They are indeed a valuable resistance training tool. The following websites give you some pro's and con's of surgical tubing and some websites about dryland exercises for swimmers and athletes. Good luck, Coach T.

http://www.fredysnet.com/id53.html

http://www.revolutionhealth.com/healthy-living/fitness/home-gym/exercise-equipment-gear/resistance-bands?ipc=B00519


A vulture boards an airplane, carrying two dead raccoons. The stewardess says, "I'm sorry, sir, only one carrion allowed per passenger."


http://swimming.about.com/od/drylandexercise/Dryland_Workouts_for_Swimmers.htm

meldyck
May 31st, 2008, 12:38 PM
I am a physician(OK I'm a psychiatrist,but I went to medical school).I have read many places that swimming should not be sufficient for prevention of osteoporosis,but the only actual study I know of done on Masters Swimmers(in 1986 at the LCM Nats) showed in fact bone density in Masters Swimmers who swam only,had good bone density.

You certainly have to wonder about some of the studies. If they were done on folks who move through the water at slightly above float speed, it would not surprise me to find that they have no improvement in bone density. However, as you swim faster it is well known that the resistance increases. Therefore, you will reach a point when you really are doing resistance work. Just from the feel alone (anecdotal information, of course), I can sense greater resistance from hard swimming than I get from normal stretch cord training. At the other extreme are the max weight lifts (2 X Leslie's body weight, or thereabouts).