"Human and Ecological Risk Assessment"
2006, Volume 12, Number 1, February
Development of Factors for Estimating Swimmers’ Exposures to Chemicals in Swimming Pools - 139
Richard Reiss, Gerald P. Schoenig, and Gary A. Wright
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a model to estimate chemical-specific exposures to swimmers following pool treatments. This model is called SWIMODEL. The model was first introduced in 1996, and the USEPA has made refinements to the model over the last decade. One of the most significant parameters in this model is the duration of exposure. Unfortunately, there was no reliable source of data for these exposure durations, so highly conservative estimates were used in the earlier version of SWIMODEL. In order to address this data deficiency, a telephone survey of competitive swimming coaches was conducted to provide data for the refinement of the SWIMODEL. The survey collected data on practice durations and other factors that are potentially relevant to swimmer exposures. Two different surveys were developed. The first survey was designed for coaches of amateur swim club teams, and the second survey was for collegiate coaches. The survey found that the average practice durations for youth, adult Masters, and collegiate teams were 9.1, 6.4, and 17.0 hours/week, respectively. The use of these data to estimate acute, chronic, and lifetime exposures is discussed. The data developed in this study were used to update the exposure duration and frequency estimates in SWIMODEL for competitive swimmers based on survey responses. The survey was also used to determine the percentage of competitive swimmers that wear eye goggles and other protective gear, and to supplement other measurements of the incidental water ingestion of competitive swimmers.